Kenneth O. Stanley, David B. D'Ambrosio, and Jason Gauci (2009)
A Hypercube-Based Encoding for Evolving Large-Scale Neural Networks
To appear in: Artificial Life journal 15(2): pages 185–212. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2009 (Manuscript 39 pages)
Research in neuroevolution, i.e. evolving artificial neural networks (ANNs) through evolutionary algorithms, is inspired by the evolution of biological brains. Because natural evolution discovered intelligent brains with billions of neurons and trillions of connections, perhaps neuroevolution can do the same. Yet while neuroevolution has produced successful results in a variety of domains, the scale of natural brains remains far beyond reach. This paper presents a method called Hypercube-based NeuroEvolution of Augmenting Topologies (HyperNEAT) that aims to narrow this gap. HyperNEAT employs an indirect encoding called connective Compositional Pattern Producing Networks (connective CPPNs) that can produce connectivity patterns with symmetries and repeating motifs by interpreting spatial patterns generated within a hypercube as connectivity patterns in a lower-dimensional space. The advantage of this approach is that it can exploit the geometry of the task by mapping its regularities onto the topology of the network, thereby shifting problem difficulty away from dimensionality to underlying problem structure. Furthermore, connective CPPNs can represent the same connectivity pattern at any resolution, allowing ANNs to scale to new numbers of inputs and outputs without further evolution. HyperNEAT is demonstrated through visual discrimination and food gathering tasks, including successful visual discrimination networks containing over eight million connections. The main conclusion is that the ability to explore the space of regular connectivity patterns opens up a new class of complex high-dimensional tasks to neuroevolution.